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CSS3 Introduction

May 15, 2011

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is an international community where member oraganizations, a full time staff and the public work together to develop web standards. The W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee, the original architect of world wide web. The Organization purpose is to develop open standards so that the web evolves in a single direction rather than splintered among conpeting factions.

Cascade Style Sheet(CSS) is stlye sheet language used to describe the look and formatting of a document written in markup language. It is a most common method used to style the web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can also applied to any kind of XML document, including plain XML, SVG and XUL. The CSS specification are maintained by the W3C.

A style sheet consists of a list of rules. Each rule or rule-set consist of one or more selectors and declaration block. A declaration block consist of list of declarations in braces. Each declaration consist of a property, a colon(:), a value. If there are multiple declarations in a block, a semi-colon(;) must be inserted to seperate each declaration.

Example

selector one, selector two
{
    property-one: value-one;
    property-two: value-two;
    property-three: value-three;
}

.class_name
{
    float: left;
    clear: both;
    padding: 10px 20px;
}

Variations

CSS has various levels and profiles. Each level has new features and denoted as CSS1, CSS2 and the recent version is CSS3. Currently there are profiles for mobile devices, printers and television sets.

CSS 1

The first CSS specification became an official W3C recommendation is CSS level 1, published in December, 1996. Among its capabilities are support for,

  • Font properties
  • Color of text, backgrounds and other elements.
  • Text attributes
  • Alignment of text, images, table and other elements
  • Margin, padding, border and positioning

CSS 2

CSS level 2 was developed by the W3C and published as a recommendation in May 1998. A superset of CSS1, CSS2 includes a number of new capabilities like absolute, relative, and fixed positioning of the elements and z-index. The W3C no longer maintains the CSS2 recommendation.

CSS 3

CSS3 offers a huge variety of new ways to create an impact with your designs. Instead of defining all features in a single, large specification like CSS2, CSS3 is divided into several seperate documents called “modules”.

Modules

The biggest change that is currently planned with CSS3 level 3 is the introdcution of modules. The advantages to modules is that it allows the specification to be completed and approved more quickly. The old specification is too large and complex to be updated as one, so it has been broken down into smaller pieces. some new features of CSS3,

  • Selectors

    Selectors are going to ver interesting in CSS3. It allows desingners/developers to select much more specific levels of the document. One of the best thing about this module is that many browsers are already started to support the advanced CSS3 selectors.

  • Text effect and Layouts.
  • Pseudo classes.
  • Paged media and Generated Content
    CSS3 will now support more option in paged media such as running headers, footers and page numbers.
  • Multicolumn layout.
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